Orchid Code of Ethics or How I can conserve our native orchids

So many of us are interested in preserving our native flora and fauna, and for NOSSA it is the native orchids. But many of us may not be aware of how we can play a significant role in minimising our impact upon the environment so that they are still around for our children and grandchildren

The following video is a brief overview of two documents that NOSSA has produced. They are guidelines to help individuals know how they can minimalize their impact on the environment and so assist in the conservation of our beautiful and unique native orchids.

Below are the links to the documents referred to in the video:

Code of Ethics – Sensitive Sites 2 page
Code of Ethics – Sensitive Sites 3 page
Code of Ethics – Photography

Ethical Nature Photography in Tasmania

Australian Orchids: Their Role in Human Lives

In July, NOSSA resumed face to face meetings but with an innovation. We introduced Zoom meeting as part of our face to face meeting. We are hoping that this will allow more members to become involve with the meetings.

Our first speaker, Greg Steenbeeke, spoke to the meeting from Sydney; and we had another member joining in from Victoria. Greg kindly allowed us to record his talk which is available for all to hear.

Australian Orchids: Their Role in Human Lives
Speaker: Greg Steenbeeke

Anyone wanting to join our General Meeting, please contact the treasurer via email – nossa.treasurer@gmail.com

NOSSA: The Doco

Last year, UniSA second year media students were required to produce a short documentary about a local organised. Three of their students, Vanessa Rossi, Tayla Elliot and Emma Sullivan, chose to produce a video about the work of the Native Orchid Society of South Australia. And for this we thank them. It was interesting working with them and they learnt a few things about our bush gems – namely that they are not big and showy!

Some adjustment needed to be made to the original video, but it is now available for viewing

COVID19 Impact on NOSSA

Update November 2020

With the current outbreak, NOSSA has cancelled the public meeting scheduled for 24 November. The NOSSA committee will assess the other activites closer to the time and will notify members should any events be cancelled.

Continue to maintain safe hygiene practices

September 2020
With recommencement of various NOSSA activities we have put into place the Government required Covid19 plans with Covid Marshalls.

If you have any concerns, please feel free to contact NOSSA on 0439214106, or email the secretary or go to the South Australian government website for more details.

March 21 2020
NOSSA will put best practice to prevent the spread of COVID19 into action to protect our members. Ramifications of this decision include the following –

Postponement of NOSSA AGM and general meeting until further notice.
Our planned speaker, Dr Rick Davies, was relieved to hear that we had postponed our meeting next week because he was concerned for our members.

NOSSA Committee Meetings
The plan is to manage these meetings electronically so that the affairs of NOSSA are properly canvassed and effective decisions are made.

Propagation Days
These will be placed on hold for the time being.

Field Trips
These are not necessary meetings and will not be formally arranged by NOSSA however going for a walk looking at orchids is something that family groups are able to do outside. NOSSA and the Update may offer a suggested place to visit to encourage this.

WAYS TO STAY IN TOUCH
Journal
Our wonderful editor, Marg, will continue to ensure the Journal meets the monthly deadline, and her team of trusty helpers will ensure it gets tot he members. The Journal is the official source of Orchid news and information so look out fot it each month. Feel free to send your thoughts to the editor – they may even get published!

Facebook
Some members are already familiar with our Facebook pages. Others may be interested in exploring this avenue of member interaction.
If you have any questions etc, email nossa.enquiries@gmail.com

Photographic Competition
Please continue to send your wonderful photos into nossa.enquiries@gmail.com. The photos will be displayed for voting. 😉 Still working on the how of that thought!

Update
Update will continue to keep you in the loop of NOSSA news at mid-month.

CANCELLED EVENTS
There have been many events that have been delayed, postponed or cancelled. Some of the follow –
Mt Pleasant Show
APS Autumn Sale
SAROC AGM and meeting

***GOOD NEWS***
Library Display
We couldn’t take part in the Mt Pleasant Show, however Faye McGoldrick of the Mt Pleasant Natural Resource Centre invited us to put up a display in their library. Rosalie and Robert Lawrence have already put the display in place, so if you are passing pop in and have a look.

We encourage everyone to stay safe and follow the basics of social distancing and washing hands to minimize inviting COVID19 into your world.

Stay well, Stay happy
Til next time

Lindy McCallum
Honorary Secretary NOSSA

Selecting Photographs for 2020 NOSSA Calendar

It’s time to vote again!

Following the success of 2019 NOSSA calendar, we are continuing with the same format of inviting people to vote for the twelve orchids that they would like to see in the 2020 calendar.

All the entries are South Australian orchids that were from the NOSSA monthly photograph competition.

To enter:

  •  Select the numbers corresponding to the twelve images that you would most like to see in your calendar
  • Email your twleve votes – nossa.enquiries@gmail.com (Subject Heading – Calendar)
  • Voting closes on Friday 9 August 2019

The results will be collated to determine the twelve most popular images that will go into the calendar. We plan to have the calendars available for purchase at the NOSSA Spring Show, September.

If you would like more details or see the images in a higher resolution, use the above email address to contact NOSSA.

These calendars make great gifts to those who love flowers and are greatly appreciated by orchid enthusiasts not connected to a club.

NOSSA Inaugural Calendar 2019

2019 Calendar Flyer sm amended.jpg

Every month, NOSSA holds a photograph competition. The entries were varied and beautiful but they were only being seen by the members at the meetings, so it was decided to showcase these lovely orchid images in a calendar.

The overall winner from 2018 would be on the front cover and we would select twelve from the fifty-one 2018 entries. The challenge was to select the twelve. This was done by having an on-line vote for the twelve most popular pictures. And I would like to thank all who entered and all who voted.

Having collated the votes to find out what was the most popular orchids, the next task was to design an informative calendar giving information about the South Australian orchids featured as well as significant NOSSA event dates and a very rough guide indicating when the orchids are likely to be flowering.

If you are interested in ordering a calendar, contact NOSSA as per the details on the flyer above.

Selecting Photographs for 2019 NOSSA Calendar

Every year, NOSSA holds monthly photograph competitions. This year, NOSSA decided to give the entrants an opportunity for their photographs to appear on a calendar. There have been 51 entries this year, so we are asking people to vote for the twelve images that they would like to see in a calendar.

To vote

  • Select the numbers corresponding to the twelve images that you would most like to see in your calendar
  • Indicate if you are interested in purchasing a calendar
  • Email – nossa.enquiries@gmail.com  (Subject Heading – Calendar)
  • Voting closes on Thursday 1 November 2018

The results will be collated to determine the twelve most popular images will go into the calendar. We plan to have the calendars available for purchase at the next meeting, Tuesday 27 November.

If you would like more details or see the images in a higher resolution, use the above email address to contact NOSSA.

2018 Thumbnails Photogrpahs for voting

2017 April Winning Picture

1704 LN Diuris behrii sm

April’s theme was yellow and orange. All of the entries proved to be spring flowering. There were several Diuris. Claire Chesson, Rob Pauley and John Fennel all entered D. orientis; Les Nesbitt and Rob Pauley D. behrii and Pauline Meyer D. corymbosa from Western Australia. Pauline also entered Caladenia caesaria subsp. maritima and John Thelymitra benthamiana.

The winning picture was Les Nesbitt’s D. behrii (Cowslip Orchid) which occurs in Victoria, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory whilst in South Australia it is rated as vulnerable.

Les Nesbitt has been working on a recovery project of these orchids for Hillgrove Resource’s flagship, the Kanmantoo Copper Mine, located almost 55 KM from Adelaide. As this orchid is often mentioned in NOSSA Journals, it might be worthwhile looking at the person after whom this species was named.

First collected by German born Dr Hans Herman Behr (1818 – 1904) who first visited* South Australia in 1844 when the colony was barely 8 years old. During his two years in South Australia he became the first person to systematically study our botany and entomology sending reports and samples back home. The results of his observations were published in various journals, and many of his collections were named and described by other botanists including his friend, Diedreich von Schlechtendal (1794 – 1866) who named Diuris behrii after Hans.

Hans Behr was an interesting man. A man of many aptitudes; medical doctor, entomologist, anthropologist, botanist, duellist, socialist, poet, novelist, linguist, member of the Bohemian Club of San Francisco and a man of wit. From the many reminiscences written about him, it would appear that he was a likeable gentleman and a generous teacher.

Unfortunately, not everyone liked him because “he was a sworn enemy of all scientific humbug, of quacks and false pretenders” and “he never refrained from expressing his opinion of them, quite regardless of person or station” but his humour shone forth in dealing with them. Once he named a “particularly obnoxious louse” after one of his enemies.

Behr revisited South Australia in 1848 during which time he became acquainted with German-Australian botanist, Ferdinand von Meuller. He maintained friendship with many of the scientific men of the time including Ferdinand Mueller and it was through this friendship that many Australian plants were introduced into California where Behr later settled after his travels.

Though the study of butterflies was his first and enduring love, he is remembered and honoured in Australia for his botanical interests. Of the twenty-two plants named after Behr, two are orchids: Diuris behrii and Arachnorchis behrii (synonym Caladenia behrii).

*The Journal incorrectly stated that he visited South Australia with his friend, Diedreich von Schlechtendal. This did not happen. As far as I am aware Schlechtendal did not visit South Australia.

Reference

https://archive.org/details/doctorhansherman00cali

https://archive.org/stream/jstor-1630874/1630874_djvu.txt

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Hermann_Behr

https://www.anbg.gov.au/biography/behr-hermann.html

Kraehenbuehl, D. N., Dr HH Behr’s Two Visits to South Australia in 1844-45 and 1848-49, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 3(1): 101 – 123 (1981)

Bates, R. J., ed. (2011). South Australian Native Orchids. Electronic version, 2011. NOSSA

2017 March Winning Picture

As part of 40th NOSSA anniversary, the theme for this month was Leptoceras menziesii (Hare Orchid or Rabbit Ears). Entries were received from John Badger, Pauline Meyers, Robert and Rosalie Lawrence, with John Badger’s being declared the winner.

1703 sm JB Leptoceras menziesii

In February 1978, it was announced that the nascent NOSSA society required an emblem. Members were invited to send in drawings, to be judged by members and then ratified by the committee. Mrs Chris Butler (Ron Robjohns’ daughter) was the winner. The first Leptoceras menziesii flowers to be benched at a NOSSA meeting were in September 1978. It appears to be an easy plant to grow but a most difficult one to flower.

This seems to be because it is fire dependent. In spring, it will flower profusely if there has been a summer fire such as occurred after the 2015 Sampson Flat (SA) fires. It is possible that the gas ethylene produced during a fire event may initiate the flowering response.

Otherwise, apart from the occasional flowering plant, it will be mainly leaves that are found when out in the field. The single leaf of this plant lying prostrate along the ground is distinctive. It is firm, boat-shaped, glabrous (no hairs), with a fine ‘snake-skin’ pattern. Interestingly, sterile plants can be mistaken for a plant with a developing bud as there will be at the leaf base a ligule (a thin membranous growth, often found on grass stems).

 

Reference

Backhouse, G, et al (2016) Bush Gems: A Guide to the Wild Orchids of Victoria Electronic version

Bates, R. J., ed. (2011). South Australian Native Orchids. Electronic version, 2011. NOSSA

Lawrence, R. W., (2011) Start With The Leaves

NOSSA Journal Volume 2 No 6 July 1978

NOSSA Journal Volume 2 No 9 October 1978

Gleanings from the Journal – Have Our Orchids Changed?

Ten years ago, the then NOSSA secretary, Cathy Houston, wrote an article reflecting upon orchid name changes.  Since then there have been more name changes. The issues she raised then are still pertinent today. Whilst we continue to learn more about our orchids, name changes are going to happen.

NOSSA Journal Volume 31 No 2 March 2007

HAVE OUR ORCHIDS CHANGED?                                                           Cathy Houston (Secretary)

This month the Native Orchid Society of South Australia celebrates its thirtieth “birthday”. A review of the first five years of the Society’s Newsletters/Journals (yes, they were newsletters in the earliest days) reveals some interesting points. By 1979 “A total of 110 species [of orchids] and 14 varieties” were accepted. The following are some interesting aspects about the knowledge of, and what was then current thinking about, our orchids at that time. It must be remembered that no comprehensive book on South Australian orchids existed in those days, especially not any field guides. The most useful “tools” the members had to work with were Blacks Flora of South Australia and W.H. Nicholls “Orchids of Australia”. In 1979 “A Checklist of Orchidaceae on South Australia” by J.Z. Weber: Changes introduced in the new ‘Black’s Flora” by R. Bates, appeared as a full issue of the Native Orchid Society of South Australia Journal.

Today we sometimes struggle to grasp all the fine differences when orchid species, or species groups, are split, but spare a thought for those wanting to identify with what they have seen in the field back in about 1979. An article by R. Bates describes the “Variations within the species Caladenia dilatata R.Br. in South Australia”. “There are, at present, two recognised varieties” viz. C. dilatata var. dilatata and C. dilatata var. concinna. Within these two varieties are further more divisions into distinct sub-varieties or races! At that time there were six distinct forms recognised; how much easier today, now that they are named as species. These would now include C. tentaculata, C. verrucosa, C. stricta, C. toxochila and C. conferta.

Orchid 1 Arachnorchis tentaculata
 Arachnorchis tentaculata (King spider Orchid)  syn Caladenia tentaculata

Recognition of what could be species has long been apparent. Take for example the article written in 1980 about two forms of Pterostylis nana, viz. what we commonly refer to as the ‘Hills’ form and the ‘Mallee’ form. This article documents the obvious morphological differences and illustrates this with line drawings and a map showing distributions of the two. Electronic Orchids of S.A. currently recognises five possible species of P. nana for South Australia. These are probably all un-named, since David Jones, in “Native Orchids of Australia”, does not recognise true P. nana in our state. Similarly, an article written in 1981 discusses the P. alatascabrarobusta complex. The author recognises there are “at least four species of this group in South Australia”. This is the first time the authors acknowledge they should be elevated to species, not just accepted as varieties or forms. At that time P. robusta was treated at varietal level, viz. P. scabra var. robusta or P. alata var. robusta. Ultimately most of these have been elevated to species level (P. dolichochila, P. erythroconcha, P. robusta, and P. striata).

It was noted that in 1978 David Jones and Ray Nash were currently working on Pterostylis. Further to that Les Nesbitt notes that of the sixty or so Pterostylis in Australia, South Australia has twenty-two species. One wonders what the count is now. It is well known that David Jones is currently/still working on the Pterostylis group, with more species being recognised regularly.

Thelymitra x irregularis
Thelymitra x irregularis or Pink Spotted Sun Orchid was photographed in 2009 near Macclesfield

In a series of articles produced about “Our rarest orchids” in 1977 we find the comment “Very few of our orchids are thought to be extinct… . “One wonders what that number would be considered to be today. The same article talks about the demise of Pterostylis cucullata and the possibility that it may no longer exist in the wild. Certainly this is one of our highly endangered species for which recovery actions are being undertaken these days. [N.O.S.S.A. members have an opportunity to assist with this work starting on April 14th – see diary dates.] In 1977 there was excitement when, following a field trip to Belair National Park one member returned the following day and “the elusive Pterostylis cucullata” was seen “growing in association with P. curta”. In 1981, following a discussion and review of endangered orchids in South Australia, R. Bates writes “There are a number of endangered species in S.A. which have not yet been named. It is not unlikely that some of these will become extinct before they are even described properly.” With such a large number of as yet undescribed orchids in our state, let us hope this does not happen.

Naturally occurring hybrids and the naming of such, has been debated regularly within botanical circles. In 1978 this insight is shown by Ray Nash who “guided us to a nearby patch of Thelymitra macmillanii,…… Ray’s view is that this will probably turn out to be a hybrid, possibly between antennifera (which it closely resembles) and rubra or luteocilium.” In 1980 T. decora [T. x truncata] was featured as one of South Australia’s rarest orchids. It was thought to be of hybrid origin and three forms were recognised then. The probable parents were T. ixioides x T. longifolia, T. ixioides x T. pauciflora, and T. ixioides x T. mucida. Today with the naming of many species within the T. pauciflora complex, it is now being recognised that there are even more combinations producing similar type flowers, e.g. T. juncifolia, which gives rise to the spotted features, x T. brevifolia.

Name changes always raise controversy. A brief explanation giving some insight into this complex area can be picked up when an author is expanding on the front cover illustration of Corybas. “In fact, they should never have been called Corybas in the first place. They were discovered by Robert Brown during the Flinders Expedition (1801 – 1805), and illustrated by the Austrian Ferdinand Bauer, another of the members of the expedition. Brown called them Corysanthes from the Greek “korys” (a helmet) and “anthos” (a flower), and they were known for many years by that name. However, in this instance, justice was never truly done, because the decision was made to call them Corybas, the name previously allotted by R.A. Salisbury in 1805, on the strength of seeing Bauer’s illustrations.” More recent times have seen that injustice righted with the name reverting to Corysanthes, something brought about through the work of David Jones. Similarly, the latest naming of Corunastylis tepperi follows this, The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, a name that was recognised by R. Bates in an article written in 1981! However, Bates concludes that P. tepperi and P. nigricans are synonymous, so the latter prevails, but “further work needs to be done”! He is also the author of an article depicting some name changes in 1980. If our readers are confused by “new” names, then just think what it was like for those in 1980 when, among others, Caladenia carnea, and all its five varieties, is changed to C. catenata, with all its varieties, two of which are C. catenata var. gigantea and C. catenata var. minor. Two others were elevated to C. pusilla and C. alba.

 

Corysanthes diemenica 077
Corysanthes diemenica (Veined Helmet Orchid)

At one time our esteemed orchidologist was asked to comment on a list of name changes being proposed for the revision of Black’s Flora of S.A. “My first reaction was to state that everyone would be happiest if no changes were made”! However, in fairness to that gentleman, it must be said that by the time he had worked through a lengthy consultation with botanists covering much of Australasia, a revision of type specimens and other material and associated literature, he was clearly of the opinion that the changes were warranted.

Have our orchids changed? Maybe, but what has really changed is our knowledge and understanding of these unique plants. Based on that knowledge, opinions, attitudes and ideas have changed. Thirty years ago it was not “policy to differentiate between the numerous forms of C. patersonii in this State …” Today we have numerous named species in this complex, without actually any Caladenia patersonii as such.

The final word must come from Peter Hornsby when he said “The ultimate aim should be for the reader to know which plant is being discussed, rather than whether or not the title is absolutely correct.”

References:

Native Orchid Society of South Australia Journal.

1. 1977 Vol. 1 #5 2. Vol. 1 #9 3. 1978 Vol. 2 #2 4. Vol. 2 #6
5. Vol. 2 #7 6. 1979 Vol. 3 #1 7. Vol. 3 #6 8. Vol. 3 #9
10. 1980 Vol. 4. #3 11. Vol. 4 #4 12. Vol. 4 #6 13. Vol. 4 #7
14. 1981 Vol. 5 #1 15. Vol. 5 #3 16. Vol. 5 #4 17. Vol. 5 #6

Black J.M. 1978. Flora of South Australia, Part 1, Third Edition. Handbooks Committee, South Australia.

Jones David L. 2006. A Complete Guide to Native Orchids of Australia, Including the Island Territories. Reed New Holland, Australia.

Nicholls, W. H. 1969. Orchids of Australia; The Complete Edition. Thomas Nelson, Australia.