Selecting Photographs for 2019 NOSSA Calendar

Every year, NOSSA holds monthly photograph competitions. This year, NOSSA decided to give the entrants an opportunity for their photographs to appear on a calendar. There have been 51 entries this year, so we are asking people to vote for the twelve images that they would like to see in a calendar.

To vote

  • Select the numbers corresponding to the twelve images that you would most like to see in your calendar
  • Indicate if you are interested in purchasing a calendar
  • Email – nossa.enquiries@gmail.com  (Subject Heading – Calendar)
  • Voting closes on Thursday 1 November 2018

The results will be collated to determine the twelve most popular images will go into the calendar. We plan to have the calendars available for purchase at the next meeting, Tuesday 27 November.

If you would like more details or see the images in a higher resolution, use the above email address to contact NOSSA.

2018 Thumbnails Photogrpahs for voting

Advertisements

2018 February Winning Photograph

1802 sm RP Caladenia carnea

A small but varied number of entries for our first competition of the year. Andrew Primer entered a lovely picture Thelymitra azurea from Eyre Peninsula; Thelma Bridle entered Calochilus cupreus one of South Australia’s endangered orchids; John Fennell’s close up of Caladenia prolata and Rob Pauley’s mass flowering of Caladenia carnea.

The winner was Rob Pauley’s C. carnea a wide spread orchid which ranges from across the Eyre Peninsula through to the South East as well as occurring in the Eastern States and Tasmania. Although considered common both nationally and at a state level, there are regions within its range where it is considered to be Near Threatened, Rare and even Vulnerable. Also, despite being common, the Seedbank notes that there are areas of probable decline: Fleurieu (KAN02), Mt Lofty Ranges (FLB01), Eyre Mallee (EYB05), Wimmera (MDD05) and Southern Yorke (EYB01). It is a reminder that not only the rarest species but also that common species can be in decline.

The situation is complicated by taxonomic issues; C. carnea is not only a highly variable species but also a complex of several similar species plus many undescribed species which continues to challenge botanists.

References:

http://saseedbank.com.au/species_information.php?rid=815 accessed 8 March 2018

Backhouse, G., et al, (2016) Bush Gems: A Guide to the Wild Orchids of Victoria, Australia, Electronic version.

Bates, R. J., ed. (2011). South Australian Native Orchids. Electronic version. NOSSA

2017 October Winning Picture

1710 JH Arachnorchis tentaculata sm

This month’s theme of “more than six flowers” was interpreted in one of two ways. There were six entries that had six or more plants and the other six entries had six or more flowers, predominately the flowers being on one inflorescence.

The competition was tight with Jane Higgs’ Caladenia tentaculata (syn. Arachnorchis tentaculata) winning by one vote. In South Australia it is known as the King Spider Orchid or Large Green Combed Spider and in Victoria is named the Eastern Mantis Orchid. As it is the largest of the Green Combed Spider Orchids, it is easily identified by its size. But there is variation and sometimes there are patches of small sized plants.

This happened to Rudie Kuiter on one of his orchid forays when he came across of patch of C. parva and small sized C. tentaculata growing together. In his book Orchid Pollinators of Victoria (page 29), he records how he distinguished the differences between the two species – “Except for some minor differences in the labellum they looked much the same. In C. tentaculata the upper margin teeth are longest, whilst in C. parva the central ones are longest. Labellum calli usually run into the red tip on C. parva and just short of the red in C. tentaculata, ...

Though I could not find these details recorded in any of the field guides I consulted, the differences were obvious when comparing the images of C. parva and C. tentaculata on the Retired Aussies website, www.retiredaussies.com

References:

Kuiter, R. H., Orchid Pollinators of Victoria, Fourth Edition. Aquatic Photographics

http://www.retiredaussies.com/ColinsHome%20Page/Orchidssa/Arachnorchis/Arachnorchis%20parva%20SA/Arachnorchis%20parva%20SA11.htm

http://www.retiredaussies.com/ColinsHome%20Page/Orchidssa/Arachnorchis/Arachnorchis%20tentaculata/Arachnorchis%20tentaculata%20King%20Spider%20Orchid.htm

2017 September Winning Picture

1709 sm JF Thelymitra x truncata

 

Natural hybrids are both fascinating and challenging. Fascinating because they don’t occur readily, (although of all the plant families, orchids have one of the greatest propensity for hybridising). Challenging because of the difficulty in determining the parents unlike the manmade hybrids where we can track which parents are being used to make the hybrid.

Obviously, the hybrid will share characteristics of both parents and this is the case of this month’s winning photograph, John Fennell’s Thelymitra x truncata. In the South Australian setting, a spotted orchid hybrid suggests that one of the parents will always be T. ixiodes/juncifolia and because it is blue it is most likely that the other parent will also be blue, from either the T. pauciflora or T. nuda complexes. This is true also for T. x merraniae. This is because there is no naturally occurring blue pigment. Whereas a pink or yellow parent and a blue parent will not produce a blue hybrid. Consider T. x chasmogama, T. x irregularis, T. x macmillanii are never blue.

Finally, it is fitting that this should be the winning photograph as this is the centenary month (September 2017) of its presentation to the Royal Society of South Australia, by Dr R S Rogers who also named this hybrid. The other hybrids entered were Jane Higgs Caladenia Harlequin and Diuris Earwig, both cultivated plants; Pauline Meyers Caladenia falcata X Drakonorchis barbarossa; John Fennell’s Caladenia x idiastes, T. x irregularis; Rickey Egels T. x macmillanii along with Lorraine Badger’s Caladenia roei hybrid and Caladenia x ericsoniae.

Reference

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/109628#page/353/mode/1up

https://nossa.org.au/2017/07/28/2017-june-winning-picture/

https://nossa.org.au/2014/09/26/thelymitra-x-irregularis-beautiful-but-only-a-hybrid/

Bates, R. J., ed. (2011). South Australian Native Orchids. Electronic version, 2011. NOSSA

Rules of entry:

The subject matter must have something to do with Australian orchids.  Any format is acceptable including Photo shopped images, artwork, etc

 

2017 August Cultural Notes

Steve Howard writes cultural notes for Adelaide conditions. These are his notes for August; for both epiphytes and terrestrials.

WATERING

Mounts daily.

Pots weekly. Small pots twice weekly depending on weather. Drier conditions for hot cold types. Terrestrial pots can dry out faster on warmer days so keep a watch on conditions.

FEEDING

Epiphytes: Recommending feeding towards months end as days lengthen. Many plants in strong spike growth and flowering now.

Terrestrials generally don’t need to be fed although weak organics like Seasol and Powerfeed applied in low doses can benefit colony type greenhoods.

PESTS AND DISEASES

Epiphytes: Botrytis will rot new buds in cold damp weather as fast as it attacks new growths from now. Aphids will increase sharply this month and favour new growth and spikes.  Pyrethrum sprays eco friendly and work well, so does a hose but dry spike straight after.

Some terrestrials will rot this month if conditions have been too wet or stagnant over winter. Note this for next season and add more drainage if this has been an issue.

 

GENERAL

Epiphytes: Keep flowering plants under cover  to enjoy. Soon will be the time to start thinking about re-potting and division as spring nears.

Keep flowering terrestrials out of strong winds and heavy rains as flower stems on some varieties are quite weak when grown in cultivation

Additional:

Later August will produce some warmer drying days as spring nears. Ensure small pots and plants don’t dry out at this time. Good time to check out seedling lists and prepare orders to ensure your plants arrive at the commencement of a new growing season.

den-alick-dockrill-paleface-jb-1

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

2017 March Winning Picture

As part of 40th NOSSA anniversary, the theme for this month was Leptoceras menziesii (Hare Orchid or Rabbit Ears). Entries were received from John Badger, Pauline Meyers, Robert and Rosalie Lawrence, with John Badger’s being declared the winner.

1703 sm JB Leptoceras menziesii

In February 1978, it was announced that the nascent NOSSA society required an emblem. Members were invited to send in drawings, to be judged by members and then ratified by the committee. Mrs Chris Butler (Ron Robjohns’ daughter) was the winner. The first Leptoceras menziesii flowers to be benched at a NOSSA meeting were in September 1978. It appears to be an easy plant to grow but a most difficult one to flower.

This seems to be because it is fire dependent. In spring, it will flower profusely if there has been a summer fire such as occurred after the 2015 Sampson Flat (SA) fires. It is possible that the gas ethylene produced during a fire event may initiate the flowering response.

Otherwise, apart from the occasional flowering plant, it will be mainly leaves that are found when out in the field. The single leaf of this plant lying prostrate along the ground is distinctive. It is firm, boat-shaped, glabrous (no hairs), with a fine ‘snake-skin’ pattern. Interestingly, sterile plants can be mistaken for a plant with a developing bud as there will be at the leaf base a ligule (a thin membranous growth, often found on grass stems).

 

Reference

Backhouse, G, et al (2016) Bush Gems: A Guide to the Wild Orchids of Victoria Electronic version

Bates, R. J., ed. (2011). South Australian Native Orchids. Electronic version, 2011. NOSSA

Lawrence, R. W., (2011) Start With The Leaves

NOSSA Journal Volume 2 No 6 July 1978

NOSSA Journal Volume 2 No 9 October 1978

Orchid Basics – A Beginner’s Guide to South Australian Orchid Name Usage

For the novice or beginner, orchid names can be a bit overwhelming.  To add to their confusion, the more knowledgeable people tend to use abbreviated terms often switching between common and botanical names & their synonyms.

This week’s post will be a brief introduction to the most common names used for the South Australian orchids and how they relate to each other.  It will not be comprehensive and it will not be a detailed discussion of orchid nomenclature but hopefully it might help the novice learn some of the names in current use.

In the past attempts have been made to split some genera.  Not everyone has agreed with the splits but there are many who find it more convenient  to use the alternate genus when working in the field.  This tends to be the case with the larger genera such as Caladenia, Corybas and Pterostylis.  Unfortunately, this has contributed to the confusion.

The names in this list are compiled from South Australia’s Native Orchids 2011 DVD.  Even with this list the use of the names varies quite a bit with some being used rarely.  Rather than considering each individual species, the list is centred around the genus name.

GENUS

ALTERNATE

GENUS NAME

or

SYNONYM

 

COMMON NAME

Acianthus  

Acianthus

Acianthus Mosquito

Acianthus

Nemacianthus Mayfly
Caladenia  

Caladenia

Caladenia Pink Fairy

Caladenia

Arachnorchis Spider

Caladenia

Jonesiopsis Daddy Longlegs

Wispy Spider

Caladenia

Petalochilus Pink Fingers

Caladenia

Pheladenia Bluebeard

Blue Fairy

Caladenia

Stegostyla Gremlin
Caleana  

Caleana

Caleana Duck

Caleana

Paracaleana Little Duck
Calochilus   Bearded

Beardies

Chiloglottis

Chiloglottis

Chiloglottis Bird

Chiloglottis

Myrmechila Ant

Chiloglottis

Simpliglottis Frog
Corybas  

Corybas

Corybas Helmet

Corybas

Corysanthes Helmet

Corybas

Anyzbas Pelican
Genoplesium Corunastylis Midge
Cryptostylis   Tongue

Moose

Cyrtostylis   Gnat
Dipodium   Hyacinth
Diuris   Donkey
Eriochilus   Parson’s Bands

Autumn Bunnies

Gastrodia   Potato

Cinnamon Bells

Glossodia   Purple Cockatoo

Waxlip

Leporella   Fringed Hare
Leptoceras   Rabbit Ears

Hare Orchid

Microtis  

Microtis

Microtis Onion

Microtis

Hydrorchis Mignonette

Microtis

Microtidium Yellow Onion
Orthoceras   Horned

Crucifix

Prasophyllum   Leek
Pterostylis    

Pterostylis

Pterostylis Greenhood

Pterostylis

Bunochilus Banded Greenhood

Pterostylis

Diplodium Shell

Pterostylis

Hymenochilus Tiny Shell

Pterostylis

Linguella Little Greenhoods

Nana

Pterostylis

Oligochaetochilus Rufoushoods

Pterostylis

Plumatochilos Bearded Greenhood

Pterostylis

Speculantha Tiny Greenhood

Pterostylis

Taurantha Cobra Greenhood

Pterostylis

Urochilus Maroonbanded Greenhood

Sanguinea

Blood Greenhood

Pyrorchis   Fire

Undertaker

Spiranthes   Ladies Tresses

Spiral

Thelymitra   Sun Orchid

A detailed list of SA orchid species names and their synonyms can be found here .

The following are all Pterostylis but not all of them are Greenhoods.  This first image is a Pterostylis Greenhood.

1609-sm-bs-pterostylis-cucullata

Pterostylis cucullata

This one is a Shell Orchid or alternately Diplodium

Diplodium dolichochilum

Diplodium dolichochilum

Whilst this Pterostylis is a Bearded Greenhood or Plumatochilos

09 sm JMcP Plumatochilus sp Woodlands

Plumatichilos sp Woodland Bearded Greenhood

The final Pterostylis example is a Rufoushood, or Oligochaetochilus

Oligochaetochilus arenicolaHL

Typical of the Rufoushood this Oligochaetochilus arenicola shows the sencesing leaves, pendent petals and hairs on the labellum. Photographer: H Lawrence

So they could all be referred to Pterostylis or any of the other possible names whether the common name or a synonym.

When do orchids flower?

This is one of the most commonly asked question.

The short answer is that in South Australia there will be potentially an orchid flowering somewhere in any month of the year but the caveat is that in certain months specifically December, January, February, and March it is very difficult to find any as there are only a few flowering species and most of them are restricted to localised/sensitive sites.  The flowering times for the highest number of species occur in winter and spring with October being the most prolific month for flowering.

 

chart-south-australian-flowering-times

To see how this varies across the state for the individual regions see the charts below.

Another is question “Will I find orchids when I visit a particular park on a particular day?” is not such an easy question to answer because it DEPENDS on so many different factors.

The timing of the rains affects the flowering time, for instance, Autumn orchids appear about 6 – 8 weeks after the first autumn rains.  Normally the South East is the best place but this year the lower South East did not have a good flowering due to the storms and associated cold with the wet conditions.

Pollination affects the likelihood of finding flowers.  Flowers remain open until pollination occurs.  If the pollination is delayed the flower will be on display for a longer time until it runs out of energy and naturally shrivels up.  To illustrate this NOSSA visited Scott Creek Conservation Park one day and there was a beautiful display of sun orchids along with several spider orchids but on a visit to the same site one week later, there were hardly any flowers left.  Many had been pollinated as was evidenced by the swollen capsules.

So as a rough guide click here for the species flowering times of South Australian Orchids and here for month by month information.  This data is based upon information found in the 2011 South Australia’s Native Orchids disk.

For detailed information, it is necessary to consult with someone who knows the orchids in the area but it may not always be easy to find such a person.  In which case, contact NOSSA and we may be able to, through our network, find someone to help.

sa-regions-flowering-times-copy

 

Orchid Seed Conservation

There are many different activities involved with orchid conservation.  In situ conservation consists of looking after the orchids where they are growing; maintaining and protection of habitats and ecological systems.  On the other hand ex situ conservation is caring for the orchids in cultivation in a similar way that zoos maintain an animals species that is extinct in the wild.

For the orchids one form of ex situ conservation is via seed collection and the propagation of new plants. With many of our terrestrial orchids this is not an easy task but here in South Australia an attempt is being made with four of our endangered orchids.

Unlike some of our terrestrial orchids these are ones which we have not been able to grow.  There is a collaborative effort co-ordinated through the South Australian Seed Conservation Centre (Seedbank) to change this.  Amongst the people helping the Seedbank are members of the Native Orchid Society of South Australia, students from Kildare College and Dr Noushka Reiter of the Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne.

On July 30 2016, Dan Duval of the Seedbank was interviewed by Jon Lamb on Ashley Walsh’s ABC 891 Adelaide Talkback Gardening program.  It is an informative interview and well worth the listen.

For more information on the work of the Seedbank, visit their website

Video as heard on Talkback Gardening with Jon Lamb and Ashley Walsh – Saturdays from 8.30 on 891 ABC Adelaide.

2016 October Winning Picture

 

Quite a few pictures were entered this month.

Ricky Egel’s Thelymitra x irregularis, 1610-re-sm-thelymitra-x-irregularis

Pauline Myer’s Caladenia falcata and Caladenia carinsiana; 1610-pm-sm-caladenia-falcata

1610-pm-sm-caladenia-cairnsiana

Margaret Lee’s Diuris orientis and Nemacianthus caudatus;

1610-ml-sm-diuris-orientis

1610-ml-sm-nemacianthus-caudatus

Judy Sara’s Arachnorchis tensa;

1610 JS A4 Arachnorchis tensa.jpg

Greg Sara’s Arachnorchis stricta which had an unusual green coloured flower;

1610-gs-sm-arachnorchis-stricta

and Helen Lawrence’s Arachnorchis argocalla.

1610-hl-sm-arachnorchis-argocalla

Helen’s picture of the nationally endangered A. argocalla was the outstanding winner.  Now known as the White Beauty Spider Orchid^, it was featured last year as a winner with Pauline Meyer’s June 2015 entry*.

This is one of our largest spider orchids. For size, beauty and delicacy it rivals the Western Australian Caladenia longicauda ssp. eminens (White Stark Spider Orchid) and A. venusta, syn. Caladenia venusta (Graceful Spider Orchid) from Victoria and the South East.

It shares many similarities with these two species in that they are reasonably good size white flowers with a stiffly hinged labellum that has long, thin teeth and the segments have threadlike tips without clubs.  It is separated both geographically and in the type of habitat from these two species. A. argocalla is a plant of the inland hills and valleys.

Though primarily a white flower and part of the A. patersonii complex, A. argocalla has red colouring in the labellum which according to Backhouse may possibly indicate genetic introgression (that is long term mixing of the gene pool) with either the A. reticulata or A. leptochila complexes. Certainly, the colour of the labellum was quite variable ranging from white through to a deep red.

^Previously known as Common White Spider Orchid because of its abundance but now only known to a limited number of locations.

*NOSSA Journal, July 2015

Reference:

Department of the Environment (2016). Caladenia argocalla in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 3 Nov 2016 16:31:39 +1100

Introgression https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Introgression Accessed 4 November 2016

Bates, R. J., ed. (2011). South Australian Native Orchids. Electronic version, 2011. NOSSA

Jones, David L (2006) A complete Guide to Native Orchids of Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW: Reed New Holland

Backhouse, G (2011) Spider-orchids the Genus Caladenia and its Relatives in Australia

 

NB: November Competition will be judging the monthly winners from this year.