2015 April Winning Photograph

04 sm HL Calochilus cupreusDespite having five very different but high quality photographs, Helen Lawrence’s photograph of Calochilus cupreus (Aldinga Bearded Orchid) was the clear winner with the vast majority of votes.

In South Australia it is considered endemic and endangered. Researching it was interesting. For instance, there is no mention of it in Jones extensive book (2006) yet it was named by R S Rogers in 1918 with a description appearing in Black’s Flora of South Australia (1922 edition), including a drawing by Rosa Fiveash. Between then and now there was a shift. In the Third edition of Black’s (1978) C. cupreus is absent but C. campestris present. In Bates and Weber 1990 the authors describe C. campetris (C. cupreus). Currently, the eflora of South Australia (the electronic version of 1986 Flora of South Australia) considers it a synonym of C. campestris. This is reflected in the Census.

It would appear that as C. campestris was studied and its variations documented (e.g. article by Jones 1976 Orchadian 5:83) the distinction with C. cupreus was lost. Clements and Jones (2006) state “Calochilus cupreus R.S.Rogers = Calochilus campestris” which means that they are not using C. cupreus. But in Jones’ book an anomaly occurs – he does not include South Australia in the distribution of C. campestris and as result Bates, from 2008, states that it is not recognized as occurring in South Australia.

Though C. cupreus disappeared from the literature the name still continued to be discussed amongst orchid enthusiasts. So when in 1995 NOSSA members found a distinctively different colony at Aldinga they identified it as Rogers’ C. cupreus.

Below is a chart, based upon Dr Rogers’ description, of some of the differences that made him consider C. cupreus a separate species:

C. cupreus C. campestris C. robertsonii
Shorter leafRather rigid or fleshy erect triangular section

Longer leaf

Crescentic section

Longer leaf Crescentic section
Base of labellum oblong glabrous (without hairs) with several raised longitudinal line Base of labellum round thickened, smooth no raised longitudinal lines Whole of labellum hirsute (hairy)
8 – 15 flowers About 8 flowers maximum About 8 flowers maximum

It will be interesting to watch what happens.

References

Bates personal communications

Bates & Weber (1990) Orchids of South Australia

Bates (2011) NOSSA South Australia’s Native Orchids

Bates (2005 to present) Orchids of South Australia CDs various editions

Clements and Jones An Australian Orchid Name Index (27/4/2006)

https://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/orchidkey/html/AustralianOrchidNameIndex.pdf

Jones (2006) A Complete Guide to Native Orchids of Australia

NOSSA Journal Vol 25 No 10 November 2001

Rogers R S Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia V42 (1918) Pages 24, 25

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/113409#page/40/mode/1up

Australian Orchids & the Doctors they Commemorate Part 20 of 20

 This series ends with Dr John Pearn’s summary below.

Enduring memorials

Scientific names of living things will be used as long as scientists find it useful to do so. Names change as taxonomists revise plant groupings and there is a proposal to dispense with scientific names, in favour of an alternative system called the PhyloCode.

In the past, the doctrine of signatures linked the forms of plants with their supposed therapeutic uses. But the world of binomial nomenclature (which Linnaeus introduced in 1753), allows for the most fitting memorials in medicine and botany. In the scientific names of Australian orchids, the lives of many doctors and botanists endure.

Though this series has been divided into 20 parts, it does not cover the whole of his original article which can be viewed here and downloaded as a pdf.

Remembering Bill Murdoch

On the eve of the  100th anniversary of ANZAC Day, this week’s post is taken from the NOSSA Journal April 2015 Vol. 39 No. 3.   The article is by Lorraine Badger.

William Hugh Murdoch, Anzac Veteran
17 September, 1885 – 24 July 1989

William Hugh Murdoch, known as Bill, was born at Poowong in Victoria’s Gippsland*.  Later in life he became an orchid grower, eventually becoming co-founder of the Australian Native Orchid Society (ANOS), after sending out letters in 1962, suggesting the formation of a Society, to fellow Native Orchid Growers.  

However, it is not for that reason alone, that we remember him in this journal.  This month  is the hundred year anniversary of the first battle of our new country, at Gallipoli.  Following several weeks training in Egypt, William landed at ANZAC Cove with the 17th battalion on 16  August**, just four months after the initial landing.   The battalion was mainly responsible for the defence of Quinn’s Post***. 

Conditions on the  Dardanelles peninsular ‘defy description.’  Water was scarce.  Food rations were limited to mainly bully beef and hard tack biscuits.  ‘The terrain and close fighting did not allow for the dead to be buried.  Flies and other vermin flourished in the heat, which caused epidemic sickness’****.  Under these conditions William, amongst dozens of men, contracted Enteric Fever, better known as Typhoid Fever, just three months after his arrival.  He was sent by hospital ship, SS Nevasa (sic), to Alexandria back in Egypt before being sent to the  Australian hospital in Helios on the outskirts of Cairo and then the Enteric Convalescent Camp in Port Said.

On 21 January 1916 he was declared fit to travel and was repatriated to Australia for three months of rehabilitation, leaving Pt Said on the Suez, via the  MAT Commonwealth.  Almost nine months later he returned to join his battalion, first disembarking in England.  Four days before Christmas Day in 1916, he left the UK to join his battalion which had returned to Etaples, France following a spell in a quieter sector of the front in Belgium following the battalion’s first major battle at Pozières between 25 July and 5 August.  In their new location they manned the front through a very bleak winter and William was again needed hospitalisation on several occasions for frostbite, diarrhoea, being wounded in action and finally Trench Fever a few weeks prior to armistice in 1918. He embarked for Australia in March 1916 reaching Australia in May where he was discharged.

Again when WWII commenced William re-joined the Army and was involved in training and later as ‘Voyage Only Officer’.

Bill Murdoch Trophy
Bill is also remembered by ANOS through the Australia wide, Bill Murdoch Trophy for Champion Australian Native Orchid Species of the Year.  It is not often that a South Australian wins this prestigious award but Kris Kopicki has become the latest recipient for his winning entry, Caladenia discoidea, in the NOSSA 2014 Spring Show.

This picture was taken in 2013, in 2014 it was the winner of the Bill Murdoch Trophy
Caladenia discoidea (Bee Orchid or Dancing Orchid).  This picture was taken of the 2014 winning plant in 2013.  Congratulations Kris for growing a winner!

References

*Birthdate gleaned from: http://www.irabutlertrophy.org/WRMurdoch.htm  However, on his enlistment papers of 2 February 1915 it states that he was  aged  19  years  and  4  months  –  which  would  suggest  he was born about October 1895.

**Taken from his  Army records  in the Australian Archives and
online at http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/

***The 17th Battalion https://www.awm.gov.au/unit/U51457/

****Gallipoli http://www.1914-1918.net/Gallipoli.htm

Australian Orchids & the Doctors they Commemorate Part 18 of 20

Colin Ledward (1903 – 1963)

A general medical practitioner of Cloncurry and Canungra (Queensland); the orchid that bears his name was collected from a single colony discovered in 1934 and is now almost certainly extinct.

Orchid

Acianthus fornicatus (= Acianthus ledwardii)

Australian Orchids & the Doctors they Commemorate Part 19 of 20

Arthur George Harrold (1918 – 2012)

A navy surgeon who later worked as general medical practitioner, ecologist and conservationist in Noosa (Queensland), and graduate of the University of Cambridge; he formed the Noosa Parks Association in 1962 and helped establish the Cooloola National Park.

Orchid

Habenaria harroldii

Named in recent years, so there is only general information on the genus, Habenaria

Australian Orchids & the Doctors they Commemorate Part 17 of 20

Hugo Flecker (1884 – 1957)

A pioneer Australian radiotherapist, radiologist, general medical practitioner and toxicologist of Cairns (Queensland) who dug his own radioactive ore at Radium Hill (South Australia), a medical graduate from the University of Sydney, and a natural historian; his life and works are commemorated by the Flecker Botanic Gardens in Cairns.

Orchids

Cestichis fleckeri (= Liparis fleckeri) Slender Sphinx Orchid

Thelychiton fleckeri (= Dendrobium fleckeri) Apricot Cane Orchid

Australian Orchids & the Doctors They Commemorate Part 16 of 20

Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881 – 1964)

A general medical practitioner, medical scientist, zoologist, pioneer of industrial medicine in Australia, and national medical director of the Allied Works Council during World War II.

Orchids

Dendrobium kestevenii  is the name applied to the hybrid between D. speciosum subsp. speciosum and D. kingianum

Australian Orchids & the Doctors they Commemorate Part 15 of 20

Charles Stanford Sutton (1895 – 1950)

A Melbourne general medical practitioner and expert on subalpine flora.

Orchids

Pterostylis suttonii  Name not found in the Australian Plant Name Index or International Plant Index
Prasophyllum suttonii or Mauve Leek Orchid

Australian Orchids & the Doctors they Commemorate Part 13 of 20

Thomas Lane Bancroft (1860 – 1933) son and Joseph Bancroft (1836 -1894)  father

Thomas Lane Bancroft is one of Australia’s greatest doctor-naturalists; he elucidated the life cycle of the lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri

Orchid Species

Sarcochilus dilatatus (= Sacrcochilus bancroftii) Brown Butterfly Orchid

Australian Orchids & the Doctors they Commenorate Part 12 of 20

Herman Beckler (1828 – 1914)

A general medical practitioner in Ipswich and Warwick (Queensland) and, after 1862, in Germany; in 1860, he travelled with the Burke and Wills expedition as a doctor–botanist and expeditioner in Victoria and New South Wales.

Orchid Species:

Dockrillia schoenina (= Dendrobium beckleri) or common name Pencil Orchid

Papillilabium beckleri or common name Imp Orchid